高中英语语法承接副词

发布时间:2016-12-21 编辑:莹莹 手机版

  这是小编为大家整理的高中英语语法承接副词,快来看看吧。

  therefore,however,still,instead等作副词连接上下文使用时,不妨可以称之为承接副词。因为它们在连接上下文时,在文中起承上启下的作用。如果说文章的上下文犹如一个个不同的“链条”,而这些承接副词恰似一个个“环节”,把这些“链条”连接在一起,从而使整个文章浑然成一体。

  决定如何使用这些副词,并非出于文章作者的随意性。而是出于作者为表达其意图的需要,或是为了表达上下文的关系是联合的、递进的;或者是转折的;或者是因果的等。因此说决定承接副词的使用是上下文的语言环境决定的。

  既然语言环境决定了承接副词的使用,那么承接副词又客观地反映了上下文。即无论是在做完形填空、短文改错或是阅读理解时,在弄懂上下文大意的前提下承接副词便成了下文大意的缩影。也就是在做完形填空时,遇到某一组选项为承接副词时,必须读懂其后的下文大意,再回头决定承接副词的使用。在短文改错中遇到承接副词,欲知其正误,必须先读其下文,通过判断上下文的关系或知其正或纠其误。在做阅读理解时,通过对承接副词的理解可预知下文的大意。

  在完形填空中,如果错选了承接副词,就必然破坏了连接上下文的“环节”,文章的下文则成了在空中随意飘摇的断线“风筝”。难怪有同学说他的完形填空在某某处一错就错一串。这种现象每每出错在承接副词上。 NMET2001的48题是一个很好的例证。48题前的一段文字是:Most believe the footprints are nothing more than 46 animal tracks, which had been made 47 as they melted(融化)and froze in the snow.不必看46,47题的选项,考生也完全可以理解这段文字,其中心意思说的是多数人都不相信雪人的存在。因48题的选项含有两个承接副词 Therefore,However以及In the end和After all这样两个可承接上下文的短语,其正确项必然受下文的制约。只有抓住下文的大意,并同上文大意进行比较,找出二者的关系,方可选出正确的项目。48题后,即下文的核心句为: and was a remaining link with the prehistoric humans。通过这一句可以分析出俄国科学家认为雪人存在。从而断定上下文为转折关系,则此处用However来连接上下文。如不研读下文,在48题处主观臆断地填上In the end或Therefore,那么下文的49、50、51等题会造成一连串的错误。

  承接副词出现在阅读理解中更是屡见不鲜。但阅读理解不同于完形填空,由于对其要完成的任务不同,所以处理的方法也不尽相同。如上文所述,在完形填空中,遇有承接副词,多数是处在选项中,这时只有读懂下文,返回来才能选出正确项。而阅读理解需要的是迅速地理解下文大意。在阅读理解中,遇有承接副词,准确地理解其意思,对于帮助理解文章的下文会大有益处。

  经常使用的承接副词有如下几类:

  一、表转折之类的承接副词

  however:它的意思是“然而”或“无论如何”。由它所承接的下文与上文为转折关系。 1.The most famous salt lake in the world is the Dead Sea,...However,it is not the saltiest lake in the world.(SB2L62)

  NMET 2001的C文,2000的D文都用到

  However,而且都用在一个段落的开头,在 NMET1998的D文中一处用在段落的开头,一处用在段中。抓住however的词义和用法,对于考生理解本段落或下文一定会起到帮助作用。

  instead:在文中不能直接译出它的意思,它隐含的意思是“不是这样而是那样”,即上文往往是否定句,下文通常为肯定句。

  2.The sperm whale does not feed on small fish like other whales.Instead it has teeth and feeds on squid.(SB2L62)

  unfortunately(unluckily),fortunately(luckily):unfortunately(unluckily)意思为“不幸地”,它的上文通常是有利的条件或好的想法,下文为不利的事实。fortunately(luckily)unfortunately(unluckily)的意思和用法正好相反。

  3.We also want to teach all the children to perform.Unfortunately it will cost a lot of money.(SB2L94)

  4.We had to climb over some rocks and it started to rain.Fortunately,we could see where we were going.(SB2L41)

  yet:表上下文有相反的对照之意。

  5.More than two-thirds of the single men Rubin interviewed could not name a best friend.Those who could were likely to name a woman.Yet three-quarters of the single women had no problem naming a best friend,...(NMET2001E文)

  anyhow:它的意思是“不管怎样”,“无论如何”。

  6.That's not true,I don't want to argue about it any more.Anyhow,I'll see your next work.(SB3L29)

  二、表联合、递进之类的承接副词

  besides,also,still这三个词的意思大体相同。都有“除此之外,还有……”之意。它们连接上下文,表示上下文的关系为联合递进。

  1....so corals are found in water with a depth of less than 60metres.Also,the water must be very clean.(SB2L62)

  2.Third,a lot of irrigated land has becometoo salty to grow plants.Also,it is well known that pests continue to eat crops,causing damage.(SB3L14)

  3.It had been raining heavily for two days and the ground was very well.Besides,it was autumn and therefore the trees still had their leaves on.For these reasons,...(SB2L42)

  4.“She prefers beef.Still,you'll know next time,won't you?”(SB2L47)

  三、表因果之类的承接副词

  therefore,“因此”“所以”;thus,“如此”“这样”,它们连接的上下文表因果关系。

  1.The problem is that 300 people are dying each day from illness caused by smoking.Therefore,if the tobacco companies wants to remain in business,they have to encourage young people to start smoking.(SB2L6)

  2.Education was intended for white settlers only,and until very recently no school lessons were held in languages rather than English.Thus Koori children who went to school could not understand the lessons.(SB3L10)

  四、表否则之类的承接副词

  otherwise,else:它们都有“否则”之意。

  I'd prefer them not to play too loudly at the beginning.Otherwise we won't be able to hear ourselves talk.

  上句中的otherwise可用else或or else来代替。

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