英语论文参考文献格式的标准要求

时间:2018-09-27 论文格式 我要投稿

  一、文献引用(统一按 APA 格式规范夹注)

  (一)引用基本常识

  1、如引用到某作者的话语或观点,需在句中或括号内注明该作者姓氏(last name) 。

  2、直接引用的,需在直接引用话语部分加双引号(quotation marks),并注明页码。

  3、在所引用的话语后加括号(parentheses)需在其后加句号(period)。

  4、中文作者在正文中夹注要求用作者姓氏汉语拼音,按英文 APA规范夹注。

  (二)具体规范和示例

  1、间接引用

  A. 引用单一作者的著作的(Single author),可有以下几种引用方式:

  In 1989, Jorgensen compared formal interviews to carefully constructed questionnaires. OR

  Jorgensen (1989) compared formal interviews to carefully constructed questionnaires. OR

  Jorgensen compared formal interviews to carefully constructed questionnaires (1989). OR

  Jorgensen stated, “Formal interviews produced optimal results in several situations” (1989, p. 23).

  Smith (21) surveyed this phenomenon.

  A famous survey of this phenomenon (Smith, 21) showed that....

  In 21, Smith demonstrated that..

  B. 引用两位共同作者著作的(Citing Works by Two Authors),如用括号则需在两作者之间加表示“and”的符号“(&)”;如无括号则 用 and.”,如:

  According to the study, 25% of people prefer cats over dogs (Smith & Brown, 24). OR

  Smith and Brown (24) surveyed this phenomenon.

  In 1992, Leonard and Trent argued that interviews have produced reliable information. OR

  Leonard and Trent (1992) argued that interviews have produced reliable information. OR

  The Arawaks had been living on the island for several thousand years (Leonard & Trent, 1992).

  C. 引用文献为三到五位作者的(Citing Works by Three, Four, or Five Authors.), 第一次引用的需注明所有作者,接下来再引用的则只需注明第一位作者的姓(surname)并加 “ et al.”表示,注意加句号(with a period),如:

  A recent survey (Smith, Brown, & Black, 25) showed.... [first reference]

  Smith et al. (25) showed [second reference]

  Bourne et al. (1994) found that this kind of activity “compares favorably to the national level of outdoor recreation” (p. 83).

  D. 文献来源为不同时期多位作者的,按主要作者姓氏字母顺序列出,并用分号“;”(semicolons)分开,如:

  These data are consistent with other studies concerning this topic

  (Greenfield, 199; Patterson, 1997; Smith & Jones, 1992).

  Several studies (Balda, 198; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg &Funk, 199)

  E. 引用团体作者(corporate author)的作品,括号夹注中应使用团体的名称,如:

  Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54).

  F. 引用文献源自采访、邮件、电话等观点或文字的(Personal communication: interviews, letters, e-mails, phone conversations, etc.)属不可追溯检索信息,不必在参考文献中列出,如:

  Trent Presto (personal interview, November 5, 28) found the work rewarding. OR

  V. G. Nguyen (E-mail, September 25, 27) confirmed these statistics stating again that the margin of error was less than 1 percent.

  G. 文中引用出现同一姓氏的(Citing Works by Authors Who Have the Same Surname

  ),应在姓氏前加注其名首字母用以区分,如:

  R. D. Luce (1959) and P. A. Luce (1986) also found

  J. M. Goldberg and Neff (1961) and M. E. Goldberg and Wurtz (1972) studied.

  如为同一姓氏中文作者,APA格式为:(W.Y. Wang, 23), (L.F. Wang, 23, p. 213)

  H. 引用无作者文献(Citing Works with No Author),如果文献标题没有出现在正文里,则括号夹注中应使用该标题或者(如果标题过长的话)使用该标题中的关键词组(选择标题开始部分的词组),如:

  “Survey of Asian Men (28)....

  a recent study (Hispanic and Female, 24)....

  I. 引用同一作者同一年不同文献的(Citing Multiple Works Written in the Same Year by the Same Author),则需在年份后加(a, b, c)(同参考文献)。对应的Reference List:

  Jensen, D. (29a). A work to be admired. New York, NY: Smith Publishing.

  Jensen, D. (29b). Yet more works to be admired . New York, NY: Smith Publishing.

  J. 无出版日期文献(Citing Works with No Date of Publication),用“ (n.d.) ”表示,如:

  Brown’s study (n.d) showed that kittens are visually pleasing

  K. 无页码文献(Citing Works without Page Numbers),如引用内容来自电子资源的,引用源自某“部分”(..section)或“段落”(para.)序号加以注明,如:

  (Smith, 21, para. 5)

  (Brown, 29, Introduction section, para. 1)

  L. 引用来自电子网络资源的(Electronic source),需注明整个网址:

  Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive Web site for children (https://kidspsych.org).

  M. 引用翻译文献

  间接引用格式为: (Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation),如 :

  (Laplace, 1814/1951)

  直接引用格式为:(Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation, page number),如:

  (Laplace, 1814/1951, p. 148)

  注:对应的在参考文献中References其格式为:

  Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Translator

  First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher.

  (Original work published Year).

  References:

  Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott &

  F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

  N. 引用文学作品和经典文献

  (1)在引用剧本时应标出引文的幕、场、行,如:

  In his famous advice to players, Shakespeare’s Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, “whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature” (3.2.21-23).也可用III.ii.23,分别表示第三幕第二场第23行.

  这里的括号夹注表示引文来自剧本第三幕第二场的21至23行。(注意标点的使用。)

  (2)在引用诗歌时应标出引文的节、行,

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